سانچہ:Cite web

وکیپیڈیا توں
Jump to navigation Jump to search
دستاویز سانچہ[view] [لکھو] [history] [purge]

سانچہ:High-use سانچہ:AWB standard installation سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc

سانچہ:Csdoc Do not use this template in the "External links" section of articles.

Usage[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc For references with author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}

For references without author credit

{{cite web |url= |title= |author=<!--Not stated--> |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}

سانچہ:End سانچہ:Csdoc

{{cite web
 |url=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |date=
 |website=
 |publisher=
 |access-date=
 |quote=}}

سانچہ:End سانچہ:Csdoc

{{cite web |url= |url-access= |title= |last= |first= |author= |author-link= |last2= |first2= |author2= |author-link2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |editor-last= |editor-first= |editor= |editor-link= |editor2-last= |editor2-first= |editor2-link= |editors= |department= |website= |series= |publisher= |agency= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |script-title= |trans-title= |type= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |access-date= |url-status= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote= |ref= |postscript=}}

سانچہ:End سانچہ:Csdoc

{{cite web
 |url=
 |url-access=
 |title=
 |last=
 |first=
 |author-link=
 |last2=
 |first2=
 |author-link2=
 |date=
 |year=
 |orig-year=
 |editor-last=
 |editor-first=
 |editor-link=
 |editor2-last=
 |editor2-first=
 |editor2-link=
 |department=
 |website=
 |series=
 |publisher=
 |agency=
 |location=
 |page=
 |pages=
 |at=
 |language=
 |script-title=
 |trans-title=
 |type=
 |format=
 |arxiv=
 |asin=
 |bibcode=
 |doi=
 |doi-broken-date=
 |isbn=
 |issn=
 |jfm=
 |jstor=
 |lccn=
 |mr=
 |oclc=
 |ol=
 |osti=
 |pmc=
 |pmid=
 |rfc=
 |ssrn=
 |zbl=
 |id=
 |access-date=
 |url-status=
 |archive-url=
 |archive-date=
 |via=
 |quote=
 |ref=
 |postscript=}}

سانچہ:Csdoc

 
 
 
 
 
last
 
last
last2
 
 
 
 
 
editor-last
 
editor-last
editor2-last
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
url 
url 
url, archive-date
archive-url
 
 
 
 
 
 

سانچہ:Csdoc

 
required
 
required
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

سانچہ:Csdoc

Choosing between Template:cite web and Template:cite news[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Anchor Before 2014, editors had to decide whether to use {{cite web}} or {{cite news}} based on their features. In 2014, سانچہ:Em the differences between the two templates were eliminated.

As of سانچہ:Diff, سانچہ:Tlf and سانچہ:Tlf have the following differences:

But given the same set of valid parameters, their output is exactly the same:

cite web: Lua error in ماڈیول:Citation/CS1 at line 755: attempt to index field 'defaults' (a nil value).
cite news: سانچہ:Cite news

Examples[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2

Using "format="[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

When this template detects a link whose URL includes an extension of ".pdf" or ".PDF", typical of PDF files, it automatically displays a PDF icon after the link (regardless of whether the link goes to a PDF file or to an HTML landing page, typical of paysites). It also internally acts as if |format=PDF had been specified, which displays " (PDF)" after the icon. (In this case, an explicit |format=PDF parameter would be redundant, so it is not recommended to add it. Users may remove it. Citation bot, when invoked, will remove it. (ref))

If the link is to a PDF file that is not automatically recognizable by its extension, this template does not display the PDF icon. You may add the parameter |format=PDF, which displays " (PDF)" after the link.

For links to files in other formats, no icon is displayed. For example, for an .odt file, you may add the parameter |format=ODT, which displays " (ODT)" after the link.

Foreign language and translated title[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2

Using author-link[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2

Multiple authors[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2

No author[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2

No author, no publisher[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2 سانچہ:Markup2

Using "archive-url" and "archive-date" (and optionally "url-status") for webpages that have been archived سانچہ:Anchor[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

By default, if "archive-url" is used, |url-status=dead and the main link is to the archive:

سانچہ:Markup2

With |url-status=live, the main link is to the original:

سانچہ:Markup2

With |url-status=unfit or سانچہ:Code, the original is not linked at all:

سانچہ:Markup2

Using quote[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

Parameters[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

Syntax[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc

COinS[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

What's new[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Deprecated[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Description[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

Authors[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Title[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc

Date[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Website[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Publisher[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc

Series[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

In-source locations[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

سانچہ:AnchorURL[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Anchor[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Identifiers[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc سانچہ:Csdoc

Quote[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Editors[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Laysummary[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Display options[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

Subscription or registration required[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Csdoc

TemplateData[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Warning سانچہ:TemplateData header

Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.

Template parameters

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

پیرامیٹرتفصیلقسمحالت
Last namelast last1 author author1 author1-last author-last surname1 author-last1 subject1 surname author-last subject

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

سطرصلاح ایہ ہے
First namefirst given author-first first1 given1 author-first1 author1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

سطرصلاح ایہ ہے
Author linkauthor-link authorlink subjectlink subject-link authorlink1 author-link1 author1-link author1link subjectlink1 subject-link1 subject1-link subject1link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 2last2 author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link2'.

سطراختیاری
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 2author-link2 authorlink2 author2-link author2link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 3last3 author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link3'.

سطراختیاری
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 3author-link3 authorlink3 author3-link author3link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 4last4 author4

The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link4'.

سطراختیاری
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 4author-link4 authorlink4 author4-link author4link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 5last5 author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link5'.

سطراختیاری
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 5author-link5 authorlink5 author5-link author5link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 6last6 author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link6'.

سطراختیاری
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 6author-link6 authorlink6 author6-link author6link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 7last7 author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link7'.

سطراختیاری
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 7author-link7 authorlink7 author7-link author7link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 8last8 author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link8'.

سطراختیاری
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 8author-link8 authorlink8 author8-link author8link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

ورقہاختیاری
Last name 9last9 author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

سطراختیاری
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Author link 9author-link9 authorlink9 author9-link author9link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

ورقہاختیاری
Authors listauthors people host credits

List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.

سٹرنگاختیاری
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

سٹرنگاختیاری
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پہلے کنوں طے تھیا ہویا
,
سٹرنگاختیاری
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پہلے کنوں طے تھیا ہویا
;
سٹرنگاختیاری
Display authorsdisplay-authors displayauthors

Number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used. By default, all authors are displayed. Examples: |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation followed by et al. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al.

سٹرنگاختیاری
Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Source datedate

Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink

تریخصلاح ایہ ہے
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; deprecated in favor of 'date', except for the special case of ISO dates with disambiguating letter

سٹرنگاختیاری
Original yearorig-year origyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

سٹرنگاختیاری
Editor last nameeditor-last editor1-last editor editors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors.

سطراختیاری
Editor first nameeditor-first editor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

سطراختیاری
Editor linkeditor-link editor1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 2editor2-link editor2link editorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 3editor3-link editor3link editorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 4editor4-link editor4link editorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 5editor5-link editor5link editorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 6editor6-link editor6link editorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 7editor7-link editor7link editorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 8editor8-link editor8link editorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

سطراختیاری
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

سطراختیاری
Editor link 9editor9-link editor9link editorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

ورقہاختیاری
Othersothers

Used to record other (non-author) contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'. Only one ''others'' parameter is allowed: e.g., 'Illustrated by Jane Doe; Translated by John Smith'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Titletitle

The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of your web browser. Not the name of the website.

سٹرنگلوڑ ہے
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

سٹرنگاختیاری
Translated titletrans-title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

سٹرنگاختیاری
URLurl URL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the protocol relative scheme "//..."

مثال
https://www.metacritic.com//...
سٹرنگلوڑ ہے
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

سٹرنگاختیاری
URL statusurl-status

If set to 'live', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live. Set to "dead" or 'usurped' for broken links. Entering 'unfit' or 'usurped' makes the original link not appear at all.

پہلے کنوں طے تھیا ہویا
'dead' if an Archive URL is entered
مثال
'dead' or 'live'
Auto value
live
سٹرنگصلاح ایہ ہے
Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'

سٹرنگصلاح ایہ ہے
Archive datearchive-date archivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

تریخصلاح ایہ ہے
Archive formatarchive-format

Format of the archived copy; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

سٹرنگاختیاری
URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

تریخصلاح ایہ ہے
Name of the websitewebsite work

Title (name) of the website (or its short URL if no plain-language title is discernible); may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' is redundant in many cases.

مثال
[[Rotten Tomatoes]]
سٹرنگصلاح ایہ ہے
Series identifierseries

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal

سٹرنگاختیاری
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; may be wikilinked. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' (a.k.a. 'work') is redundant in many cases.

مثال
[[CBS Interactive]] (which owns "Metacritic.com")
سٹرنگاختیاری
Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

سٹرنگاختیاری
Languagelanguage lang

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name or one of the standard MediaWiki language codes; do not use icons or templates; separate multiple languages with commas (with no 'and' before the last one)

مثال
de, fr, es
سٹرنگاختیاری
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

سٹرنگاختیاری
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

سٹرنگاختیاری
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

سٹرنگاختیاری
Published viavia

Name of the entity hosting the original copy of the work, if different from the publisher. This entity is committed not to alter the work. GitHub, SourceForge, CodePlex, YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion and Netflix are examples of service dedicated to acting on behalf of the publisher, but Archive.org, Wikimedia Commons and grc.com have done this on certain occasions.

مثال
"GitHub", which hosts "Visual Studio Code" on behalf of "Microsoft"
سٹرنگاختیاری
No ppno-pp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

سٹرنگاختیاری
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

سٹرنگاختیاری
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

سٹرنگاختیاری
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

سٹرنگاختیاری
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

سٹرنگاختیاری
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

سطراختیاری
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

سطراختیاری
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

سٹرنگاختیاری
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

سٹرنگاختیاری
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

سٹرنگاختیاری
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen

سٹرنگاختیاری
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

سٹرنگاختیاری
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

سٹرنگاختیاری
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

سٹرنگاختیاری
OLol

Open Library identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

سٹرنگاختیاری
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

سٹرنگاختیاری
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

سٹرنگاختیاری
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

سٹرنگاختیاری
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

سٹرنگاختیاری
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; must include terminating punctuation

سٹرنگاختیاری
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references

سٹرنگاختیاری
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined

پہلے کنوں طے تھیا ہویا
.
سٹرنگاختیاری
Subscription requiredsubscription

Use 'url-access' instead

سٹرنگdeprecated
Registration requiredregistration

Use 'url-access' instead

سٹرنگdeprecated
Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk, colon, or hash mark

پہلے کنوں طے تھیا ہویا
.
سٹرنگاختیاری
Lay URLlay-url layurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Lay sourcelay-source laysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

سٹرنگاختیاری
Lay datelay-date laydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

سٹرنگاختیاری
Editionedition

Specify the edition or revision of the source, when applicable. For example: '2nd' or '5.1'. What you supply here is suffixed by ' ed.'

سٹرنگاختیاری
Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری
DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری
HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری
Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری
OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری
OSTI access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

سٹرنگاختیاری

Notes[ماخذ وچ تبدیلی کرو]

سانچہ:Citation Style 1 سانچہ:Wikipedia referencing سانچہ:UF-COinS

سانچہ:Sandbox other